A Narrative Outline of Mark

To adequately grasp the message of the Gospels, one must give careful attention to the flow of the narrative. However we understand the genre of the Gospels, they are narratives. Moreover, analyzing the movement of the narrative shows how the unity of the book as a coherent story. To that end, here is my attempt at a narrative outline of Mark’s Gospel:

 

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Most would agree that Mark wrote his Gospel with the dual purpose of introducing Jesus as Israel’s Messiah and encouraging discipleship to Jesus. With that in mind, I have divided the material into two main sections with an introduction, transition, and conclusion. The two major sections focus on answer the questions “who is Jesus?” and “what does it mean to follow him?”

The introduction anchors the story in the story of Israel. Thus Mark presents the story of Jesus as the continuation, and indeed, climax of the OT story. John the Baptist prepares the way for the return of Yahweh to Israel, thereby presenting Jesus as the embodied return of Yahweh.

Part 1 gives particular attention to the question of Jesus’s identity. Mark’s strategy is to tell the story vividly and leave the reader to ponder the issue. The story of Part 1 begins Jesus’s announcement of the kingdom’s arrival and then demonstrates Jesus as the kingdom-bringer through his authority over demons, sickness, nature, etc. Moreover, in his teaching, he is the prophet par excellence, perfectly bringing God’s Word.

Part 1 also draws attention to the meaning of discipleship as Jesus calls his followers to find a new identity in relationship with him. That is, as Part 1 defines Jesus’s identity through the narrative, Mark also invites readers to discover a new identity.

The short transitional passage in Mark 8:27-30 explicitly answers the question: Jesus is the Messiah. Of course, the multiplicity of messianic understandings in the first century demands that we read the entire Gospel in order to understand just what kind of Messiah Jesus is. And that’s just what we find in Part 2.

Part 2 defines the messianic mission of Jesus, beginning with a strong emphasis on his death and resurrection. The rest of Part 2 fills out the details of the mission with Jesus defeating the true enemy, beginning the restoration of God’s people, claiming authority over the temple and even replacing it, all leading up to the climatic moment of his death.

Thus Part 2 defines the messianic mission, focusing on the death and resurrection of Jesus as the means of restoring God’s people and bringing God’s blessing to the nations. In terms of discipleship, the call of Part 2 is for those who have found their identity in the Messiah to join his mission.

Finally, the abrupt ending of Mark fits beautifully with the movement of the narrative (I hold the majority position that the original ending is at verse 8). The question of mission is answered, through somewhat cryptically. Jesus brings restoration through resurrection. Mark is open-ended — the mission is to continue through Jesus’s followers. They are to live resurrection lives and bring the good news of Jesus to the world.

While Mark could be outlined in other ways, I think this narrative outline allows us to keep the focus on the both the message and the medium. The story invites us to participate in it: find our new identity in Christ and join him in his mission.

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Jesus the Storyteller

In recent years, scholars have applied the tools of literary criticism to the study of the New Testament. One important literary tool utilized is narrative criticism, the study of biblical narratives as narratives. That is, narrative criticism studies the various aspects of stories in the text: characters, plot, setting, etc. Within New Testament studies, the primary focus has been on the Gospels, though narrative features in Paul’s discourse are also recognized (more on this in another post).

In the Gospels, a primary feature of Jesus’s ministry was that of a teacher. One of his favorite teaching tools was the parable. Though this is true, many Christians misunderstand the parables or neglect them altogether. While there have been many scholarly and popular studies on the parables, few, have considered the narrative character of the parables. That is, the parables are not just pity statements, but they are stories. How might a narrative analysis of the parables aid our understanding? This is the focus of Stephen Wright’s recent study Jesus the Storyteller.

Wright begins the book with an assessment of the history of parable research. The parables have been used and abused in many ways. Some consider the parables within the Gospels to reflect vastly different beliefs and intentions than those of Jesus himself (Reimarus). Some see the parables as universal moral truths, the product of Jesus the moral teacher (Jülicher). Sometimes the historicity of the parables has been doubted (Wrede) while at other times heavy emphasis is placed on their apocalyptic outlook (Schweitzer). Along the way, the narrative character is often neglected.

Wright believes that to rightly understand the parables, a “two-level hearing” is required. First, they must be understood within the wider narratives of the Gospels. That is, it is essential to grasp the literary function of the parables within the stories of the Gospels. For Wright, this should not arouse doubt as to the historicity of the parables as stories told by Jesus. The authors of the Gospels no doubt shaped the parables to fit within their stories. This does not, however, imply that the Gospel writers changed the meaning of the parables such that they are unreliable records of Jesus’s own words. Rather, “the Evangelists preserve them [the parables] as ‘actions’ which play a crucial role in advancing their narratives” (44).

Chapters 4, 5, and 6 provide an analysis of the parables within Mark, Matthew, and Luke respectively. In my opinion, these short chapters provide an very helpful entryway into understanding the function of the parables within the Synoptics. Wright argues that the parables were strategically placed within each Gospel for particular purposes. In other words, these chapters aid students of the parables to avoid missing the Gospel forest for the parable trees. This is a helpful corrective as some parable studies have isolated individual parables and sought to understand them apart from their literary contexts.

Wright’s major contribution to parable studies, however, is found in the last 100 pages of the book in which he applies the tools of narrative criticism to the study of the parables. This constitutes the second-level hearing. Whatever the parables were, and many definitions have been offered, they are at least stories. Wright believes we should study them as such. Thus, the parables have characters, settings, plots, and points of view. Identifying these features helps us to “hear” the parables as they might originally have been heard.

For example, Wright examines the parable of the Sower (Matt 13:3-9; Mark 4:3-9; Luke 8:5-8) on pages 90-97. Instead of providing a verse-by-verse commentary, Wright walks through a narrative analysis of the parable. The benefits to such analysis lies in the clarity that it brings to the elements of the story Jesus told. Thus, understanding the setting of the original telling as recorded in the Gospels and of the story itself aids us in understanding the meaning of the story. Thus, Wright considers the importance of the land in Israel’s history and the symbolic power of seed imagery and harvest, all within the context of first century Jewish peasant society. Similar analysis of the characters, point of view, and plot are offered. All of this leads the reader to hear the power of the story: “it invites thought and encourages hope” (97).

One might quibble with some of Wright’s interpretations of individual parables. Indeed, I’m not fully convinced of a few his conclusions. Moreover, there are times in which I felt the historical analysis pushed a little too hard on the parable to the detriment of hearing the additional allegorical meanings. However, these minor points do not detract from the usefulness of this volume. Wright aids us in properly hearing the Master Storyteller.

Don’t Plant Marcionite Churches

New_Exodus_lowfIn his article “Can the Gospels Teach Us How to Read the Old Testament?”, Richard Hays charges that “many ‘main­stream’ Protestant churches are in fact naively Marcionite in their theology and practice: in their worship services they have no OT reading, or if the OT is read, it is rarely preached upon.” Of course, Hays is talking about churches in the West, especially in America. However, there is a related danger for missionaries: unwittingly planting Marcionite churches.

What does “Marcionite” mean?

Marcion was a second-century bishop who sought to erase all Jewishness from Christianity. Believing that God of the OT was a false God with no relation to Jesus, he rejected the entire OT and edited the New Testament writings to exclude those parts he deemed too Jewish. For example, he rejected the canonicity of Matthew and heavily edited Luke. For Marcion, the Apostles had misunderstood Jesus as the Jewish Messiah and this misunderstanding needed to be corrected.

The Church Fathers excommunicated Marcion and rejected his teachings as heresy. However, his influence was never totally eradicated, even to the present day.

How Do Missionaries Plant Marcionite Churches?

While no one plans to plant a church modeled after the teachings of a second-century heretic, it unfortunately still happens. I have observed some of these tendencies among my own students: there is a general lack of understanding of the OT and a conscious avoidance of preaching from it. Though churches believe the OT to be God’s inspired Word, it plays virtually no role in the life of the average church.

This happens for at least three reasons:

1. The biblical grand narrative is neglected.

The grand narrative of the Bible should play an important role in all stages of ministry, including evangelism, discipleship, and leadership training. Unfortunately, some gospel presentations move directly from Adam’s sin to the cross, skipping the vast majority of the biblical story (Israel’s story). When this happens, new believers can be conditioned from the beginning to think the OT is of little value.

2. Church planters and new believers lack training in biblical interpretation.

I am convinced that the most important skill to be taught to both a church planter and a new believer is biblical interpretation. Believers need to be able to read and interpret the Bible for themselves within their new community of faith. Unfortunately, training in interpretation is often missing from discipleship programs. I have seen many curricula that emphasize teaching new believers to share the gospel and rapidly plant new churches. Others teach the basics of “how to be a Christian” — how to pray, how to have a quiet time, etc. These are all good skills to have, but if biblical interpretation is missing, we stunt growth in new believers and churches. This often leads to focusing on one’s favorite passage to the neglect of others. And, the neglected parts are usually the OT.

3. New believers are not trained in biblical theology.

Related to the above point, discipleship programs and curricula often lack basic training in biblical theology. Instead, they include isolated lessons on individual topics. While these lessons may include solid biblical teaching, they lack the necessary biblical-theological foundation that leads to worldview transformation. New believers need a new worldview, a new narrative within which to live. When this happens, the OT is inevitably neglected in favor of discipleship lessons from the NT.

How Can We Avoid This?

As a New Testament scholar, I find this disturbing. Much of my work has focused on the use of the OT in the New and I try to bring this to the classroom. One of my primary goals is to help students understand the relationship between the Testaments, especially the way in which the NT must be understood in light of the Old. I find that many students ignore OT quotations and fail to recognize OT allusions in the NT. This is largely due to their lack of knowledge of the OT. The result: a functionally Marcionite church (and a very shallow understanding of the NT).

How do we avoid starting a MPM (Marcionite Planting Movement)?

1. Make biblical theology the foundation and heart of mission strategy.

The biblical story should drive all ministry, beginning with evangelism. The goal is not simply to “get people saved,” but to make disciples of King Jesus. Making disciples means helping people lay aside the false narratives that have shaped their lives for the one true narrative of the world. And, a significant part of this narrative is the OT story. The grand narrative needs a more prominent place in missions.

2. Teach biblical interpretation.

Christians need to be able to read and understand the Bible. We need to teach and model biblical interpretation as we disciple others. This means teaching them interpretation skills and then putting them into practice as we continue mentoring. Thus, instead of telling someone what they should believe, we walk with them through Scripture, allowing them to see the process and come to biblical conclusions. This process is undoubtedly more time-consuming, but it leads to long-lasting fruit.

Related to this, there is a need in theological education to emphasize the teaching of the biblical languages. Learning Hebrew and Greek leads to greater depth in exegetical study of the Scriptures, which should lead to growth among leaders and their churches.

3. Teach the Old Testament as Christian Scripture

Finally, the OT is Christian Scripture and must be taught as such. It is not merely the background for the NT. Nor is it primarily as collection of moral teachings. Rather, it is the story of God’s faithfulness to his covenant promises. This story provides a biblical worldview for those who follow Jesus as King. It must be learned, taught, obeyed, and indwelled in community.

Original Languages and Mission

mark manuscriptIn their new Intermediate Greek Grammar, David Mathewson and Elodie Ballantine Emig provide a lengthy quote from Martin Luther on the importance of the biblical languages:

 

For the devil smelled a rat, and perceived that if the languages were revived a hole would be knocked in his kingdom which he could not easily stop up again. Since he found he could not prevent their revival, he now aims to keep them on such slender rations that they will of themselves decline and pass away. . . Although the gospel came and still comes to us through the Holy Spirit alone, we cannot deny that it came through the medium of languages, was spread abroad by that means, and must be preserved by the same means. . . In proportion then as we value the gospel, let us zealously hold to the languages. . . And let us be sure of this: we will not long preserve the gospel without the languages . . . The Holy Spirit is no fool. He does not busy himself with inconsequential or useless matters. He regarded the languages as so useful and necessary to Christianity that he ofttimes brought them down with him from heaven. This alone should be a sufficient motive for us to pursue them with diligence and reverence and not to despise them . . . When our faith is . . . held up to ridicule, where does the fault lie? It lies in our ignorance of the languages; and there is no other way out than to learn the languages . . . Since it becomes Christians then to make good use of the Holy Scriptures as their one and only book and it is a sin and a shame not to know our own book or to understand the speech and words of our God, it is a still greater sin and loss that we do not study the languages, especially in these days when God is giving us men and books and every facility and inducement to this study, and desires his Bible to be an open book . . . The preacher or teacher can expound the Bible from beginning to end as he pleases, accurately or inaccurately, if there is no one there to judge whether he is doing it right or wrong. But in order to judge, one must have a knowledge of the languages; it cannot be done any other way.

In mission context, we severely stunt the growth of the church when we do not teach the languages. The goal of mission cannot be simply evangelism or even church planting. We must train church leaders and leaders of leaders to rightly handle the Word of truth. And, an important part of that training is the biblical languages.

Difficult Texts: Romans 6.14

I’m happy to see my short article published in the latest issue tjxa_120_3.coverof Theology. The article is a short exegetical reflection on Romans 6.14 in the journal’s “Difficult Texts” series. Here’s the abstract:

The final phrase of Romans 6.14 can at first appear confusing. Paul grounds his appeal for righteous living on the status of believers as ‘under grace’ rather than ‘under law.’ One may have expected Paul to say that believers are not ‘under sin.’ Careful attention to the Old Testament narrative running through Romans provides clarity to this verse.

Read the whole thing here.

Why Learn Another Language?

I recently listened to a TED Talk by linguist John McWhorter giving four reasons for learning a foreign language. This brief talk was very interesting and well-done. Particularly striking for me was his first reason: “if you want to imbibe a culture, you have to control, to some degree, the language the culture happens to be conducted in.” For those seeking to minister cross-culturally, this is a very important point.

McWhorter begins his discussion of the benefits of language learning by pushing back on the notion that learning language teaches one to think differently. He argues that language-benefitsworldview is not uniformly reflected through language. As an illustration, he notes 3 different English speakers who clearly have differing worldviews. I would only partially agree here as I think there is a closer relationship between worldview and language than McWhorter allows, especially in many languages other than English. Further, in my experience, learning another language does stretch the mind and open up new avenues of thinking.

McWhorter then moves to the main content of the talk: why learn language? For me, reason number one is reason enough. While language may not always perfectly reflect worldview, one cannot effectively operate within a culture without speaking that culture’s language. For missionaries, this is especially true: one cannot hope to communicate the message of the gospel in a culturally meaningful way without understanding the language of that culture. Put otherwise, good contextualization necessarily involves language learning.

Beyond the obvious (people in many parts of the world don’t speak English), there is a further reason for this. Concepts merely translated directly from English into equivalent words of another language often fail to accurately communicate one’s message. Simply translating words from one language to another does not result in culturally meaningful communication.

For example, Chinese people have been told by English-speaking Christians “你是一个罪人” – “you are a sinner.” Many Chinese balk at this notion because “罪人” in Chinese most commonly refers to “criminals” – murderers and the like. Very few Chinese would agree that they are this kind of person. Obviously this is a rather simple example, but it illustrates the point: without learning the language, one can very easily miscommunicate.

Learning language is essential for gospel communication and cultural understanding. It demonstrates love for those we serve.

Here’s McWhorter’s talk:

The Need for Speed and the Related Dangers

Hilarious! I’ve seen it a thousand times and it is still funny.

As funny as the video is, it sadly illustrates some missionary methodology. How so? In recent years, some methodologies have put a premium on two things: high numbers and speed. In other words, successful methodology is that which quickly produces high numbers of new believers and new churches. Implicitly, the numbers are taken to represent God’s blessing on a certain methodology.

Of course, there are numerous problems with this, both biblically and practically. Biblically, I don’t see Jesus or Paul focusing on speed or numbers. In fact, by that measurement, we would have to say that Jesus was not very “successful.” After three years, he had only twelve disciples, one of whom betrayed him, one denied him, and the ten others rarely understood what he was talking about. (I say this tongue-in-cheek). Practically, the emphasis on speed overlooks a basic fact of faith: it takes time.

The emphasis on speed can lead missionary practitioners to neglect some essential aspects of cross-cultural ministry. For the purposes of this post, I’ll focus on just one: worldview. When one’s methodology is focused on quickly producing high numbers, worldview is set aside in two related ways. First, the worldview of the people is ignored or inadequately considered. The result is that we can share something that is true, but is  misunderstood by people hearing our message.

For example, if one presents the gospel in terms of guilt (you sinned and you will go to hell) in China, he could likely present answers to the wrong questions. That is, while the statement is true, it is probably going to be misunderstood or considered irrelevant to the average Chinese person. The Chinese term for sinner (罪人) normally means “criminal” and most Chinese people do not consider themselves to be criminals. Thus, though the statement is true, it is easily misunderstood. Failure to consider worldview in the name of speed leads to misunderstandings of the gospel message.

Second, biblical worldview building is neglected. Central to discipleship is the building of a new worldview. I believe the best way to build a biblical worldview is through the biblical story (see my previous posts on the biblical story). However, much rapid discipleship focuses on a number of “how to’s” – how to share the gospel, how to pray, how to start a church – and neglects the more fundamental issue of helping a new believer build a new worldview. The result is new believers lack the worldview structure that allows them to live out their new faith.

Back to the video above – the runner in the video finished the race quicker by busting through the hurdles. In fact, he beat at least 2-3 other runners. However, he is disqualified and his efforts, while providing a good laugh, did not lead to “success.” I fear that the neglect of worldview issues in missionary methodology leads to similar results: we plow forward quickly, but the end result is not what we desire.

I am not saying that we need to slow down for the sake of slowness. Nor am I saying that God cannot move to quickly bring multitudes to faith. Instead, I am saying that we cannot bust through worldview hurdles to finish the task quicker. We must give careful consideration to both the worldview of our people and to helping new believers build a biblical worldview. In the end, depth cannot be sacrificed for breadth – both must be held in balance.

 

Discipleship and Identity (Mark 1)

Discipleship is about identity – identity in Christ.

This is clearly illustrated in Mark. Mark’s Gospel was written for two primary purposes: to tell his readers that Jesus is the promised Messiah-King and to call people to follow him. In other words, Mark is all about discipleship: making disciples through the gospel and building disciples through the story of Jesus.

In Mark 1:16-20, we find Jesus calling disciples to follow him. Walking by the Sea of Galilee, Jesus calls two sets of brothers to be his disciples. Notice how following Jesus is directly related to identity.

Simon and Andrew (Mark 1:16-18)ren_ptg_duccio_peter_andrw

Introduction of the characters: We are first introduced to Simon and Andrew in Mark 1:16. Of
all the things Mark could have told us about these brothers in order to introduce them (their home town; their father’s name; etc.), he introduces them as fishermen. In fact, he makes this abundantly clear: “they were casting into the sea, for they were fishermen.” If the act of casting wasn’t clear enough, Mark says directly “they were fishermen.”

Calling: When Jesus calls them, he gives them a new identity: fishers of men. The calling is to follow Jesus with the result that he would make them fishers of men. Thus, the calling relates directly to the introduction of the characters.

Response: Hearing Jesus’s call, Simon and Andrew respond by “leaving the nets” and following Jesus. The old identity is left behind as they respond to the call to follow Jesus. The response is directly related to their identity.

James and John (Mark 1:19-20)

calling-of-james-and-johnIntroduction of the characters: We are introduced to James and John in Mark 1:19. Of all the things Mark could have told us about James and John, he highlights their father’s name. Of course, they were also fishermen, but they are introduced as the “sons of Zebedee” most fundamentally.

Calling: Mark moves quickly through the calling, only informing us that Jesus called them. The response will further clarify the calling.

Response: In response to the call to follow Jesus, James and John “leaving their father Zebedee in the boat with the hired men went away after him.” Notice the repetition of Zebedee’s name and the emphasis on James and John leaving him to follow Jesus. Again, the response to follow Jesus is directly related to their identity.

So What?

What does this teach us about discipleship? Discipleship is primarily about identity. In both of these call stories, the calling to follow Jesus related directly to the fundamental identity of those called to discipleship. Simon and Andrew were fishermen. They were called to leave this vocation and given a new one: fishers of men. James and John were the sons of Zebedee. They were called to leave their father and find their primary identity: not as the sons of Zebedee, but as disciples of Jesus.

Discipleship, then, is not so much about a set of tasks, but about a new identity: follower of Jesus. The new tasks follow from the fundamental change in identity.

Kingdom and Covenant, Part 8

Here’s the final installment of the biblical story…

The King Creates a New People

Jesus told his followers that his leaving earth to return to the Father was for their benefit. While this may seem confusing at first, it comes with a great promise. Jesus told his followers that when he left, the Holy Spirit would come. The presence of the Spirit is the presenfamily of godce of Jesus with his people. After Jesus’ ascension, the Holy Spirit came on Pentecost. This fulfilled the Old Testament promises and assured Jesus’ followers that he was with them and would give them the power to fulfill the mission.

The New Testament calls the church the people of God. It is not that God has forgotten about Israel. Rather, there is a new Israel that includes both Jews and Gentiles who believe in Jesus. The mark of the new covenant people is the Holy Spirit. All who believe in Jesus receive the Holy Spirit to dwell within them. The Holy Spirit unites the people of God to Jesus.

The Spirit puts the law of God into the hearts of God’s people and gives God’s people the ability to obey God. The New Testament, especially Paul’s writings, consistently refer to believers as those who are ‘in Christ.’ Those united to Christ are the new people of God. Thus, salvation in the New Testament is both individual and corporate. It is individual in that each member of the new covenant must repent of their sin and believe in Jesus. Each individual member is united to Christ. However, salvation is also corporate because God calls his people into a new community, a new family.

The King’s People Have a Mission

The New Testament gives further instructions about how to live as God’s people. The people of God are to be marked by holiness and mission. They are to be holy, set apart for God. They are not to live like those outside the covenant who continue in rebellion against God. In Christ, the image of God is being renewed in God’s people and they are to reflect this restoration in the way they live. Part of this holiness is to love one another. Unbelievers are to see the love God’s people share and see that this reflects the love of God for his people.humanity world

In addition to holiness, God’s people are to be marked by mission. Jesus commanded his followers to take the good news to the ends of the earth. They are to proclaim the glorious gospel to all peoples. Just as God commanded Adam to fill the earth with the image of God and commanded Israel to be a kingdom of priests, the church is to spread the good news and thus fill the earth with the glory of the gospel. The church in obedience to the great commission is begins to bring about the completion of God’s original intentions for humanity.

New Creation

Finally, the story of the Bible ends with new creation. Actually, this is not so much an ending as a new beginning, for the new creation is eternal. The New Testament teaches that one day Jesus will return to earth to complete the restoration of all things. This restoration is will be a new heaven and a new earth – a restored, new creation.

The new heaven and new earth resemble the garden of Eden in many ways, yet new creation will be better than the first creation. The new creation will be eternally without sin. In the new creation, the resurrected people of God will dwell with him forever. There will be no possibility of sin and corruption.

king-of-kingsThe return of Jesus will trigger a number of events. First, the people of God will be raised from the dead. While the Bible teaches that we are truly saved when we believe in Jesus, salvation is completed only when Jesus returns and raises our bodies from the dead. These will be new, glorified bodies fit for the new creation.

Second, the return of Jesus will also be a time of judgment. Jesus will judge all the enemies of God, beginning with Satan. When Jesus comes back, he will completely defeat Satan and send him to eternity in hell. All those who refuse to believe in Jesus will also be judged with their master, Satan.

Third, Jesus will complete the new creation, giving his people a new place in which to dwell together forever. This is the best promise of all. Jesus announces that at that time, ‘Now the dwelling of God is with men, and he will live with them. They will be his people, and God himself will be with them and be their God. 4 He will wipe every tear from their eyes. There will be no more death or mourning or crying or pain, for the old order of things has passed away.’

Thus, the restoration will be complete. The new creation will be far greater than anything we can possibly imagine. Everything that God intended and promised will be completed and he will be glorified by his people forever.

Jesus will give us face, create a new family, and give us the incredible blessings of God.

Kingdom and Covenant, Part 7

As I continue unpacking (though briefly!) the biblical story, I continue today with Part 7: The New Covenant and the Coming of the True King…

The New Covenant: The King Sets All Things Right Again

The Coming of the King

Despite the failure of his people, God remained faithful to them. While they were in exile, he continued to give them his good word, which provided for future hope. God promised a new exodus, a new creation, a new temple, a new David, and a new covenant. The new covenant, which would be made through the new Davidic King, would be an everlasting covenant.

Though Israel returned to the Promised Land, the promises of God remained unfulfilled. Many years passed until God again revealed himself to his people.

God’s word returned because the most important event in history took place. This event changed everything. The event that changed the world is the coming of the Messiah. Jesus as the seed of Abraham and David, the promised one coming to defeat God’s enemy, restore God’s people, and bring God’s blessings.

following-jesusThroughout the four Gospels, Jesus is presented as a new Adam. He is the true Son of God, the obedient Son who fulfills everything God intended for humanity. He is the true Son of Man who faced the temptation of Satan, yet remained without sin. He perfectly ruled over creation, even calming the stormy sea.Jesus is also a new Israel. Just as Israel left Egypt, crossed the sea, entered the wilderness and faced temptation, so Jesus left Egypt, passed through the water of baptism, entered the wilderness and faced temptation. However, where Israel failed, Jesus was victorious over the enemy of God. In and through him, God will create a new people, a new family. Israel would still be the people of God, but only as they place their faith in Jesus. This new identification of the people of God as those who belong to Jesus will also include non-Israelites.

Jesus is presented as the coming prophet. The Gospel of John particularly emphasizes that Jesus is the prophet like Moses who would come to perfectly speak God’s word. Jesus is the true King, the new David. He is the one who would reign forever. Jesus spoke much about the kingdom of God, which is established through his work. That is, when the king comes, the kingdom is present.

All of these things we have mentioned – new Adam, new Israel, new Moses, prophet, and King – come together in one man, Jesus. Jesus is the promised Messiah. He came preaching the gospel – the good news that God is faithful to keep his covenant promises. The good news that Jesus the King has come to take away sin and to restore God’s fallen people and world. At the announcement of the good news, Jesus calls people to repent and believe. They are to repent by turning away from their false understandings of the world and their rebellion against God. They are to believe in Jesus as their only hope. They are to believe in the truth of Jesus, the promised seed who alone can set things in right order. They are to give him their full allegiance.

Passion_of_the_Christ_by_SaviourMachine-e1363973714820However, he is not the conquering war hero that many expected. He did not come to defeat human foes with military might. Rather, he came to defeat the ultimate enemies – Satan, sin, and death. The shocking thing about Messiah Jesus is that his mission was completed through suffering.

The death of the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament, yet it is shocking that the Son of God would come to die. His death was substitutionary – the king died for his people. In dying on the cross, Jesus took away the hostility between God and man. From the very beginning, God said that the penalty for sin is death. Jesus offers forgiveness through his death on the cross. His death brings about the redemption promised since the sin of Adam and Eve.

It is through suffering and death that the Messiah brings salvation to his people. In announcing his birth, Matthew records the angel proclaiming that Jesus would save his people from their sin. Jesus does this through his death on the cross. Salvation includes all aspects of humanity. People’s place with God is restored. He takes away the shame we brought on ourselves through our sin. He restores God’s family by dealing with the sin that produced enmity between God and people. He brings God’s blessings in establishing a new covenant with all those who believe in him.

tombstoneThe good news does not conclude with the death of Jesus, for on the third day he rose from the dead. His resurrection completes his earthly mission. In raising from the dead, Jesus delivered the decisive blow to all enemies – Satan, sin, and death. He rose to new life and is able to give life to others. The resurrection demonstrates that Jesus is the true Son of God, the true King, the forever King.

Jesus’ resurrection is the beginning of the new creation. Through his resurrection, God’s people are being restored and his world is being made new.

The earthly life of Jesus ends with his ascension. He returned to the Father to reign as king. However, before he left, he gave his people a new mission. They were to spread the good news of Jesus throughout the whole world and call people to repent and believe. This new mission would be the means through which God would fulfill the original commission given to Adam.